You are describing analyses that attempt to prove something without recourse to multiple lines of converging evidence.
In the forensic sciences, photographic analysis of phenotypes are linked to BLOOD work, patterns of behavior and causal analysis of means and opportunity.
These same converging lines of evidence are used in the archaelogical sciences.
Sure… there are cases in forensics or any of the sciences where an incompetent technician garbled the evidence. But these events are weeded out through peer review and the sheer numbers of technicians around the world repeating similar forms of analysis.
I don’t know whether your conspiratorial accusations against science in general is more or less charming than the sheer effrontery of it!