I asked a “theological anthropologist” (a real thing) a question:
The Indus Valley Civilization arises early in history. It appears there was trade between Ancient Mesopotamia and them. Are there plausible references to them in, for example, Genesis? What are the implications for Theological Anthropology if the IVC was known to the author but exuded from the Table of Nations (Genesis 10-11)?
She responded with a wealth of info I want understand more deeply.
Wonderful questions to consider. Thanks, @Swamidass! All the people in the so-called “Table of Nations” (Gen. 10) spoke languages in the same family. They had "the same language, with the same vocabulary” (Gen.11:1). These languages are in the Afro-Asiatic group, the oldest language group. The lists found in the Table of Nations refer to later populations. Genesis 10 is an attempt to trace the dispersion of peoples after the flood. Mohenjo-daro had a population of about 40,000 during Noah’s time and afterwards (no evidence of destruction by inundation during Noah’s time). The civilizations of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro are connected to ancient Nilotic peoples. This has been shown through archaeological finds, linguistic research, and anthropology. We know from Genesis 10 that Nimrod was a Kushite who built his kingdom in the Euphrates Valley. Nimrod is respresentative of the dispersion of peoples out of Africa. There were chiefs and clan heads who moved out of Africa even earlier. They were mainly cattle-herding peoples who we refer to as “Sumerians.” These peoples settled along major water systems like the Indus River. During the Neolithic period (ca. 7000-5500 BC) Indus River valley peoples grew food and domesticated animals. They had large ceremonial baths for ritual cleansing, wells, and reservoirs. There is evidence of a centralized government as early as 2800 B.C. at Harappa. The Indus peoples had kings, royal priests, and specialized elders such as traditional healers, astronomers, and prophets. There were farmers, metal workers, and brick makers. The author doesn’t exclude them. He simply focuses more narrowly on the immediate ancestors of Abraham who is a descendant of Nimrod, the Kushite.
Have you thought of that exclusion before @jongarvey? How widely is this discussed? Does it help your case for people outside the garden?
e word Harappa is interesting. Har refers to Horus and “appa” is the Dravidian word meaning father. The origin of Dravidian religion was apparently ancient Nubia and Kush. The Indian historian and anthropologist Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan has written: “We have to begin with the Negroid or Negrito people of prehistoric India who were the first human inhabitants. Originally they would appear to have come from Africa through Arabia and the coastlands of Iran and Baluchistan.” According to the Matsya, an ancient book from India, the world belonged to the Kushites (Saka) for 7000 years. The Indian archaeologist, B. B. Lal contends that the Dravidians came from the Upper Nile and Sudan (Nubia/Kush). Lal writes: “At Timos the Indian team dug up several megalithic sites of ancient Nubians which bear an uncanny resemblance to the cemeteries of early Dravidians which are found all over Western India from Kathiawar to Cape Comorin. The intriguing similarity extends from the subterranean structure found near them. Even the earthenware ring-stands used by the Dravidians and Nubians to hold pots were identical.”
So, also, I have Dravidian blood. I remember reading Genesis as a Child, and eagerly looking to find how Adam’s offspring colonized India. I was puzzled. No mention of India, Australia, or America. I remember being unsettled, and uncertain what to make of that. What an overly pensive kid I was.
I hope Alice can join the conversation here. I have some more questions about Indus, and I’m hoping she can introduce us to Theological Anthropology too.