John Locke did not need us to be in the image of God to conclude we have rights from God. He wrote (thanks for the link @T.j_Runyon)
" Men being all the Workmanship of one Omnipotent, and infinitely wise Maker;
All the Servants of one Sovereign Master, sent into the World by his order, and
about his business; they are his Property, whose Workmanship they are, made
to last during his, not one another’s Pleasure. And being furnished with like
Faculties, sharing all in one Community of Nature, there cannot be supposed
any such Subordination among us, that may Authorize us to destroy one another,
as if we were made for one another’s uses, as the inferior ranks of Creatures are
So Locke argued that natural rights were a consequence of mankind (even those Chapter one folks outside the garden) being given dominion over the rest of nature and humanity ruling nature on God’s authority. I.E. we were God’s agents in nature. When Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence he said we were “Endowed by our Creator” with certain unalienable rights. He wasn’t arguing it was because we were “in the Image”, but because of our God-given role. We are His stewards on the earth. When we mess with one another we are not merely messing with nature, but God’s fellow chosen instruments.
I have written two books on political philosophy. The second and underappreciated one mostly talks about the basis for our rights by refuting the anarchist/libertarian view of “self-ownership” as a basis for rights. That view is intellectually incoherent, as is the idea that the state owns us and defines rights. The only view of rights that makes sense is that we are the stewards of our lives and not their owners (until the next life). But the state doesn’t own us either. God owns us. And neither we nor the state have authority to mess with His property/designated agents in an unjust manner.
Scripture uses the language of rights a lot. Proverbs 14:31 says “Whoever oppresses the poor shows contempt for their Maker, but whoever is kind to the needy honors God”. This fits well with Locke’s position. And it is irrespective of who is or is not in “the image”. Now I will say we are all in the “likeness” of God. To be human is to be in the likeness of God. There is a difference and it takes eight or nine pages to show the difference. So I suppose you could use that language to justify rights, but I don’t think that is the main thrust of why scripture indicates people have rights. That is more connected to the fact that God is our maker and we have all been given dominion over nature, but not each other.