@kleinman, nice meet you. It seems you might be this Alan Kleinman:
That is usually the best approach. Seeing as you are scientist, trying to make sense of what I’ve said elsewhere, I’ll answer your questions. This is your area, so feel free to teach me the nuances.
Yes. Doubling the population size doubles the probability of a beneficial mutation, all else being equal.
In combination therapy, HIV faces multiple drugs at the same time, so it takes multiple mutations to occur at the same time to survive. This dramatically reduces the probability of resistance. That is why combination therapy prevents resistance from emerging, while individual therapy causes resistance.
This is too poorly specified for me to answer without fearing a “gotcha” for just not using the same definition as you. I’d tentatively say “yes”, but this is a poorly specified question. What I would say is that there is overwhelming evidence for common descent and that the overwhelming majority of mutations are spontaneuos.
Well, biological evolution does not violate the basic rules of probability, and the multiplication rule certainly applies to mathematical models of biological evolution. However, at the same time, it is common for the multiplication rule to be misapplied to biological evolution. Once again, you’ll have to specify more clearly the examples you are thinking about. It is easy to find examples of appropriate and inappropriate application of the rule.
There, I answered your questions. Let me offer a few of my own:
Do you mind telling us about yourself?
Are you generally arguing for or against mainstream evolutionary science?
What brings you here?
And, also, welcome. Glad to have you with us.