Ayala (2007) explains that when scientists use the term “random” to describe mutations, they refer to the unintentional nature of the process; mutations do not “attempt” to supply what the organism “needs” within a given moment or place. Instead, environmental factors only influence the rate, but not the course of mutation.
Merlin (2010) provided a defense of the Modern Synthesis pertaining to the chance nature of genetic mutations by providing empirical support for this view and refuting arguments advocating directed mutations. He states that a genetic mutation is a matter of “evolutionary chance” if and only if it is not “directed,” i.e., if and only if it does not fulfill at least one of the two following conditions to be a “directed” mutation:
- it is more probable in an environment where it is beneficial than in another environment where it is deleterious or neutral, 2) it is clearly more probable in an environment where it is beneficial than other deleterious or neutral mutations (in the same environment) Merlin (2010).
Thus, this raises the question, should mutations truly be considered a random process or a directed one? Based on previous studies and the literature, I aim to describe how current literature show show how random mutations is an outdated and wrong perspective on how mutations operate. But, I am not arguing that there is an intelligent designer guiding it this time. Instead, I am arguing that the information imbedded in DNA/RNA is what guides it.
For instance, Numerous studies have revealed that many of these non-coding regions play an important role in the accurate functioning of the DNA in regards to neutral mutations, such as psuedogenes and other examples.
The vast majority of mutations in regions that do encode proteins but are deleterious appears to be fine-tuned to lower the risk of harmful genetic changes. Moreover, mutations are guided by both the physical properties of the genetic code and the need to preserve critical protein function
The harmful mutations that do arise are regulated in a way that ensures the death of individuals so that resources are available for the young among prey and predators because too many predators or prey can cause a collapse of the ecosystem.
Now, what I expect from everyone is to explain to me why mutations should still not be viewed as directed despite what current literature suggests…