I believe it is important to tie each of these models back to what is described in the Bible.
First of all, De Novo creation of Adam seems pretty clear and can be consistent with all three models. I believe it would be hard to raise a biblical argument against de novo creation of Adam, which is consistent with the Valley of Dry Bones creation narrative in Ezekiel 37. From the writings of Paul (Romans and 1Corintians - e.g. For if by one man’s offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.), it would be hard to argue against Adam being a historical figure.
I believe the first two chapters of Genesis are sequential. This eliminates the clear contradictions in the creation sequence, I have provided many more details of how this approach is more consistent with the Bible as a whole in my book, Genesis and Evolution. “Men and women” are created in chapter 1, and the men and women are “good”. I do not believe it is Biblically important if the men and women of chapter 1 are homo sapiens or simply from the genus homo, they were created before Adam.
“Though one man, all have sinned.” It is imported that Adam is the ancestor of all living, through genetic or genealogical means. I do not believe there is any Biblical significance to Adam and Eve being sole progenitors. I believe the Garden creation was specific to a geological area (e.g. note that no sea life was created in the Garden narrative) and that other “humans” existed at that time (some say Gen 4 is a better argument for other humans living at that time, I would argue Gen 6).
It is important to remove judgment from this discussion. To start, I am a sinner and I fall short of the righteousness of God not because Adam sinned, but because I have willfully sinned. The men and women created in Genesis, whether homo sapiens or simply from the genus homo, were created as “good”.
In summary, I believe:
- The de novo creation of Adam can be consistent with all three models.
- “Men and women” were created in Gen 1, before Adam in Chapter 2. What is important to the meaning of the Bible is that they were “good”, and not whether they were homo sapiens or another hominid species.
- “Through one man all have sinned” indicates a historic figure of Adam, I feel this is not representative of a larger population (if Adam was representative, why then could not Jesus and his suffering also be representative?). To be consistent with the Bible, it is not necessary for Adam to be sole progenitor, but an ancestor of us all. Genealogical ancestry can explain a more recent Adam than a genetic ancestor.