Can Schools Change Religious Attitudes? Evidence from German State Reforms of Compulsory Religious Education


We study whether compulsory religious education in schools affects students’ religiosity as adults.
We exploit the staggered termination of compulsory religious education across German states in
models with state and cohort fixed effects. Using three different datasets, we find that abolishing
compulsory religious education significantly reduced religiosity of affected students in adulthood.
It also reduced the religious actions of personal prayer, church-going, and church membership.
Beyond religious attitudes, the reform led to more equalized gender roles, fewer marriages and
children, and higher labor-market participation and earnings. The reform did not affect ethical and
political values or non-religious school outcomes.

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