Yes, of course! I don’t think the two ideas are in conflict; in fact they’re complementary. For example, when reading a book by the major Reformed theologian John Murray (The Imputation of Adam’s Sin), I was surprised to find he emphasizes God’s sovereign right to directly and immediately impute Adam’s sin onto all of his future descendants at the moment of Adam’s sin, even though he also believes the realist Augustinian theory that we all inherit spiritual and physical corruption from Adam. (Note that Murray wasn’t writing in reaction to evolutionary theory or any scientific developments.)
Although I haven’t actually them in detail, I suspect that the Reformed emphasis on federal headship made some theologians think it’s sufficient for God to appoint a representative for humanity by fiat and call him Adam and hold everyone else responsible for whatever he did (e.g. like Derek Kidner’s model). But many people have thought this to be too arbitrary and unsatisfactory. Why is that the case? Part of it could just be our warped modern sense of individuality and fairness, but another part could be that Scripture itself values organic, biological genealogical connections, even if they are far from being exhaustive or even necessary in all cases. Jacob, David, etc. were not just random people that God selected - they were all descendants of the first patriarch, Abraham. The genealogical connection buttresses the legal connection.
This is especially true in the OT. Now in the NT, one could argue that the importance of biological connection is diminished, because the gospel is now directed at both Jews and Gentiles. Jesus did not leave any biological descendants. One does not need to be a biological descendant of Jesus to be represented by Jesus instead of Adam. These are all good points. But what applies in the NT may not apply uniformly to the OT.
Additional note: the importance of genealogical descent is still present in some Christian denominations, especially Presbyterian ones which practice infant baptism and view their children as part of God’s covenant people. Presbyterians baptize their infants and raise them as Christians until they reach an age where they are expected to make their own credible profession of faith. Notice how genealogical descent from a Christian is not required to be a Christian, but it certainly helps.