Please, let me go on with some linear explanation of ID theory and my approach to it. Then I will answer your three questions.
You may have noticed that I have proposed two different questions about what ID theory is about:
What is the connection between complex FI and the design inference?
How does that apply to biological objects?
Now, if we want to understand each other, we have to focus first on the first question. To do that, we must for the moment forget biological objects. After all, they are the object we are discussing about: are they designed or do they arise by other mechanisms? So, we will for the moment consider the origin of biological objects undecided, and try to understand ID theory without any reference to biology.
To do that, we need an explicit definition of design and of functional information. I have offered a lnk to my two OPs about those two definitions. So, I will just remind here that:
Design is any process where some conscious intelligent and purposeful agent imprints some specific configuration to a material object deriving it from subjective representations in his consciousness. The key point here is that the subjective representation must precede its output to the materila oobject.
FI is the number of bits required to implement some explicitly defined function. Any function can be used. FI is always defined in relation to the defined function, whatever it is. n object exhibits the level of FI linked to the function if it can be used to implement the explicitly defined function at the explicitly defined level.
In general, an explicitly defined function generates a binary partition in a well defined system and set of possible objects: those that can implement it, and those that cannot. FI, in general, is computed as -log2 of the ratio of the target space (the number of objects that can implement the function) to the search space (the number of possible objects) in the defined system.
More in next post.